Government Matching of Cultural Crowdfunding: An exploratory comparative analysis of the Spanish and Swedish cases

Autors/ores

Resum

Over the last decade, crowdfunding has become a major way to fund and develop creative projects. This is why regional governments in many European countries have begun to support crowdfunding platforms as providers of technology. Governments offer various kinds of support, including match-funding, which, as its name suggests, supplements crowdfunding campaigns with public monies. However, there is a dearth of academic research on cultural crowdfunding and public-private partnerships. This paper uses a qualitative methodology to come up with a conceptual model for governmental support and collaboration with cultural crowdfunding platforms. It also gives two case studies of public-private partnerships that support crowdfunding initiatives in Spain and Sweden. The lack of support and intervention mechanisms may suggest that regional and local governments still see crowdfunding as a marginal way of financing those cultural projects that cannot access other sources of funding.

Descàrregues

Les dades de descàrrega encara no estan disponibles.

Referències

Amman, S. (2016). The matchfunding model of Crowdculture. E. Commission.

https://www.crowdfunding4culture. eu/crowdculture-matchfunding-model

Baeck, P., Bone, J. & Mitchell, S. (2017). Matching the crowd: Combining crowdfunding and

institutional funding to get great ideas off the ground. Nesta.

https://www.nesta.org.uk/report/matching-the-crowd-combining-crowdfunding-

and-institutional-funding-to-get-great-ideas-off-the-ground/

Barbieri, N., Fina, X., Partal, A. & Subirats, J. (2019). The raise of crowdfunding in the cultural

field. A new architecture for shared production or simply a reformulation of fragility and

precariousness? [Article]. Arbor-Ciencia Pensamiento y cultura, 195(791), 13, Article a490.

https://doi.org/10.3989/arbor.2019.791n1003

Belleflamme, P., Lambert, T. & Schwienbacher, A. (2014). Crowdfunding: Tapping the right crowd.

Journal of Business Venturing, 29(5), 585-609. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2013.07.003

Bernard, A. & Gazel, M. (2018). La place de la foule dans le financement de projet musicaux: les

financeurs participatifs et l’industrie financent-ils les mêmes projets. In F. Moreau & Y. Nicolas

(Eds.), Financement participatif : une voie d’avenir pour la culture ? (pp. 105-128). Ministère de

la Culture - DEPS. https://www.cairn.info/load_pdf. php?ID_ARTICLE=DEPS_MORE_2018_01_0021

Binimelis, M. A. (2016). The crowdfunding discourses: balance and tensions around audiodiovisual

democratisation [Article]. Ic-Revista Cientifica De Informacion Y Comunicacion (13), 117-153.

https://doi.org/10.12795/IC.2016.i01.04 Blomgren, R. (2012). Autonomy or democratic cultural

policy: that is the question. International Journal of Cultural

Policy, 18(5), 519-529. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2012.708861

Bonet, L. & Négrier, E. (2011). La tensión estandarización-diferenciación en las políticas

culturales. El caso de España y Francia. Gestión y Análisis de Políticas Públicas (6), 53-73.

https://doi.org/10.24965/gapp.v0i6.9946

Bonet, L. & Négrier, E. (2018). The participative turn in cultural policy: Paradigms, models,

contexts. Poetics(66), 64 - 73. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.poetic.2018.02.006

Bonet, L. & Sastre, E. (2016). Le financement participatif, une alternative à la politique

culturelle? Nectart, 2(1), 121-129. https://doi.org/10.3917/nect.002.0121

Borchi, A. (2020). Towards a Policy for the Cultural Commons. In E. Macrì, V. Morea & M. Trimarchi

(Eds.), Cultural Commons and Urban Dynamics: A Multidisciplinary Perspective (pp. 11-24). Springer

International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-54418-8_2

Brabham, D. C. (2017). How crowdfunding discourse threatens public arts [Article]. New Media &

Society, 19(7), 983-999. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444815625946

Bustamente, E. (2013). España: la cultura en tiempos de crisis. Madrid: Fundación Alternativas.

Cameron, S. (2016). Past, present and future: music economics at the crossroads. Journal of

Cultural Economics, 40(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10824-015-9263-4

Cejudo Cordoba, R. (2017). Participation of the public in funding of the cultural offer: ethical

arguments for debate.

Arbor-Ciencia pensamiento y cultura, 193(784), Article a387.

https://doi.org/10.3989/arbor.2017.784n2009 Chartrand, H. H. & McCaughey, C. (1989). The arm’s

length principle and the arts: an international perspective–

past, present and future. Who’s to Pay for the Arts, 43-80.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry et research design: choosing among five approaches.

SAGE Publications.

Cummings, M. C. & Schuster, J. M. D. (1989). Who’s to pay for the arts?: the international search

for models of arts support. ACA Books.

Dalla Chiesa, C. (2020). From Digitalisation to Crowdfunding Platforms: Fomenting the Cultural

Commons. In E. Macrì, V. Morea & M. Trimarchi (Eds.), Cultural Commons and Urban Dynamics: A

Multidisciplinary Perspective (pp. 173-186). Springer International Publishing.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-54418-8_11

Dalla Chiesa, C. & Dekker, E. (2021). Crowdfunding in the arts: beyond match-making on platforms.

Socio-Economic Review, mwab006. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1093/ser/mwab006

Davidson, R. (2019). The Role of Platforms in Fulfilling the Potential of Crowdfunding as an

Alternative Decentralized Arena for Cultural Financing. Law & Ethics of Human Rights, 13(1),

-140. https://doi.org/10.1515/lehr-2019-0005 Davidson, R. & Poor, N. (2015). The barriers facing

artists’ use of crowdfunding platforms: Personality, emotional

labor, and going to the well one too many times [Article]. New Media & Society, 17(2), 289-307.

https://doi.

org/10.1177/1461444814558916

Davies, R. (2014). Civic crowdfunding: Participatory Communities, Entrepreneurs and the Political

Economy of Place.

https://ssrn.com/abstract=2434615

Davies, R. (2015). Three provocations for civic crowdfunding. Information, Communication & Society,

(3), 342-355. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2014.989878

De Voldere, I., Romainville, J. F., Knotter, S., Durinck, E., Engin, E., Le Gall, A., Kern, P.,

Airaghi, E., Pletosu, T. & Ranaivoson, H. (2017). Mapping the creative value chains (927966638X).

E. Commission. https://op.europa.eu/s/velb

De Voldere, I. & Zeqo, K. (2017). Crowdfunding - Reshaping the crowd’s engagement in culture.

Publications Office of the European Union. https://doi.org/10.2766/011282

Dubois, V. (2015). Cultural policy regimes in Western Europe. In J. D. Wright (Ed.), International

Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edition. (Vol. 5, pp. 460 - 465). Elsevier.

https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08- 097086-8.10419-2

EU. (2010). Green Paper: Unlocking the potential of cultural and creative industries (Brussels, COM

(2010), Issue. E. Commission.

https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/1cb6f484-074b-4913-87b3-344ccf020eef/

language-en

EU Regulation 2020/1503 on European Crowdfunding Service Providers for Business, European Union

(2020). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32020R1503

Eurocrowd. (2021). Scaling up partnerships: A blueprint for the implementation of match-funding

schemes between public authorities and crowdfunding platforms.

https://eurocrowd.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/FINAL_Eurocrowd-

ScalingUpPartnerships-2021-2.pdf

European Crowdfunding Network. (2018). Triggering Participation: A Collection of Civic Crowdfunding

and Match- funding Experiences in the EU. https://eurocrowd.org/

Evans, D. S. & Schmalensee, R. (2016). Matchmakers: The new economics of multisided platforms.

Harvard Business Review Press. Evans, G. (2009). Creative cities, creative spaces and urban policy.

Urban studies, 46(5-6), 1003-1040. https://doi.

org/10.1177/0042098009103853

Flyvbjerg, B. (2011). Case study. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of

qualitative research (pp. 301-316). Henningsen, E. & Blomgren, R. (2017). Organisere for

organiseringens skyld-Kultursamverkansmodellen og organisasjonsreformenes rolle i nordisk

kulturpolitikk. Nordisk kulturpolitisk tidsskrift, 20(01-02), 51-70. https://

doi.org/10.18261/ISSN2000-8325-2017-01-02-05

Holden, J. (2015). The Ecology of Culture - A Report commissioned by the Arts and Humanities

Research Council’s Cultural Value Project.

www.ahrc.ac.uk/documents/project-reports-and-reviews/the-ecology-of-culture

Hong, S. & Ryu, J. (2019). Crowdfunding public projects: Collaborative governance for achieving

citizen co-funding of public goods. Government Information Quarterly, 36(1), 145-153.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2018.11.009

Klamer, A., Petrova, L. & Mignosa, A. (2006). Financing the Arts and Culture in the European Union.

Lazzaro, E. & Noonan, D. (2020). A comparative analysis of US and EU regulatory frameworks of

crowdfunding for the cultural and creative industries. International Journal of Cultural Policy,

-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/1 0286632.2020.1776270

Le Béchec, M., Dejean, S., Alloing, C. & Méric, J. (2018). Le financement participatif des projets

culturels et ses petits mondes. In F. Moreau & Y. Nicolas (Eds.), Financement participatif : une

voie d’avenir pour la culture ? (pp. 177-218). Ministère de la Culture - DEPS.

Lehner, O. M. (2013). Crowdfunding social ventures: a model and research agenda. Venture Capital,

(4), 289-311. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691066.2013.782624

Lenart-Gansiniec, R. (2021). Crowdfunding in Public Sector: A Systematic Literature Review. In R.

Lenart-Gansiniec &

J. Chen (Eds.), Crowdfunding in the Public Sector (pp. 21-42). Springer.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-77841-5_2 Lindström Sol, S. (2019). The democratic value of

participation in Swedish cultural policy. Comunicação e sociedade(36),

-99. https://doi.org/10.17231/comsoc.36(2019).2346

Loots, E. (2020, October 6 2020). Do local governments master the art of matching? Drivers and

barriers of match-funding through the Voordekunst crowdfunding platform ECAF Research Conference

, Utrecht. https://www.uu.nl/en/ events/ecaf-research-conference-2020

Macht, S. & Weatherston, J. (2015). Academic research on crowdfunders: What’s been done and what’s

to come?

Strategic Change, 24(2), 191-205. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsc.2010

Mangset, P., Kangas, A., Skot-Hansen, D. & Vestheim, G. (2008). Nordic cultural policy.

International Journal of Cultural Policy, 14(1), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286630701856435

Maxwell, J. A. (2009). Designing a Qualitative Study. In L. Bickman & D. J. Rog (Eds.), The SAGE

handbook of applied social research methods (2 ed., pp. 214 - 253). SAGE Publications, Inc.

https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483348858

McKenny, A. F., Allison, T. H., Ketchen Jr, D. J., Short, J. C. & Ireland, R. D. (2017). How should

crowdfunding research evolve? A survey of the entrepreneurship theory and practice editorial board.

Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 41(2), 291-304. https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12269

Mendes-Da-Silva, W., Rossoni, L., Conte, B. S., Gattaz, C. C. & Francisco, E. R. (2016). The

impacts of fundraising periods and geographic distance on financing music production via

crowdfunding in Brazil. Journal of Cultural Economics, 40(1), 75-99.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10824-015-9248-3

Menger, P.-M. (1999). Artistic Labor Markets and Careers. Annual Review of Sociology, 25(1),

-574. https://doi. org/10.1146/annurev.soc.25.1.541

Menger, P.-M. (2010). Cultural policies in Europe. From a state to a city-centered perspective on

cultural generativity (10- 28). National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies - GRIPS Discussion

Paper 10-28.

Mollick, E. & Nanda, R. (2016). Wisdom or Madness? Comparing Crowds with Expert Evaluation in

Funding the Arts. Management Science, 62(6), 1533-1553. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2015.2207

Moreau, F. & Nicolas, Y. (2018). Introduction. In F. Moreau & Y. Nicolas (Eds.), Financement

Participatif: une voie d’avenir pour la culture? (pp. 7-19). Ministère de la Culture - DEPS.

https://www.cairn.info/financement-participatif-une-

voie-d-avenir--9782724623253.htm

Munoz Villarreal, A. (2018). A brief reference to the colloborative economy and cultural heritage Revista Juridica de

Castilla y León (44), 181-192.

Myndigheten för kulturanalys. (2013). Jakten på medborgarfinansiering: en omvärldsanalys av crowdfunding. Myndigheten

för kulturanalys Retrieved from https://kulturanalys.se/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Omvarldsanalys_-

Crowdfunding_2013.pdf

Pratt, A. C. (2005). Cultural industries and public policy: An oxymoron? International Journal of Cultural Policy, 11(1),

-44. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286630500067598

Rius-Ulldemolins, J., Flor Moreno, V. & Hernàndez i Martí, G.-M. (2019). The dark side of cultural policy: economic

and political instrumentalisation, white elephants, and corruption in Valencian cultural institutions. International

Journal of Cultural Policy, 25(3), 282-297. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2017.1296434

Rius-Ulldemolins, J., Pizzi, A. & Rubio Arostegui, J. A. (2019). European models of cultural policy: towards European

convergence in public spending and cultural participation? Journal of European Integration, 41(8), 1045-1067.

https://doi.org/10.1080/07036337.2019.1645844

Rius-Ulldemolins, J. & Rubio Aróstegui, J. A. (2016). Treinta años de políticas culturales en España: Participación cultural,

gobernanza territorial e industrias culturales. Universitat de València.

Rochet, J. C. & Tirole, J. (2003). Platform competition in two-sided markets. Journal of the European Economic

Association, 1(4), 990-1029.

Rubio-Arostegui, J. A. & Villarroya, A. (2021). Patronage as a way out of crisis? the case of major cultural institutions

in Spain. Cultural Trends, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/09548963.2021.1986670

Rubio Arostegui, J. A. & Rius-Ulldemolins, J. (2020). Cultural policies in the South of Europe after the global economic

crisis: is there a Southern model within the framework of European convergence? [Article]. International Journal

of Cultural Policy, 26(1), 16-30. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2018.1429421

Rykkja, A., Mæhle, N., Munim, Z. H. & Shneor, R. (2020). Crowdfunding in the Cultural Industries. In R. Shneor,

L. Zhao & B.-T. Flåten (Eds.), Advances in Crowdfunding: Research and Practice. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.

org/10.1007/978-3-030-46309-0_18

Sanjuán, J., Rausell, P., Coll, V. & Abeledo, R. (2020). Mayors, Using Cultural Expenditure in An Opportunistic Way

Improves the Chances of Re-Election, but Do Not Do It: Revisiting Political Budget Cycles. Sustainability, 12(21),

https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219095

Schuster, J. M. D. (1989). Government Leverage of Private Support: Matching Grants and the Problem with New Money.

In M. J. Wyszomirski & P. Clubb (Eds.), The Cost of Culture: Patterns and Prospects of Private Arts Patronage. ACA Books.

Senabre, E. & Morell, M. F. (2018). Match-Funding as a Formula for Crowdfunding: A Case Study on the Goteo.org Platform

Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, Paris, France.

Shneor, R. & Munim, Z. H. (2019). Reward crowdfunding contribution as planned behaviour: An extended framework.

Journal of Business Research, 103, 56-70. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.06.013

SOU. (2018:20). Grãsrotfinansiering. Stockholm: Finansdepartementet Retrieved from https://www.regeringen.se/

rattsliga-dokument/statens-offentliga-utredningar/2018/03/sou-201820/

Stenström, E. (2008). What turn will cultural policy take? The renewal of the Swedish model. International Journal

of Cultural Policy, 14(1), 25-35. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286630701856476

Styhre, A. (2013). The economic valuation and commensuration of cultural resources: Financing and monitoring

the Swedish culture sector. Valuation Studies, 1(1), 51-81. https://doi.org/10.3384/vs.2001-5992.131151

Swords, J. (2017). Crowd-patronage-Intermediaries, geographies and relationships in patronage networks. Poetics,

, 63-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.poetic.2017.09.001

van den Hoogen, Q. L. (2020). Values in crowdfunding in The Netherlands. International Journal of Cultural Policy,

(1), 109-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2018.1433666

Vestheim, G. (2008). All kulturpolitikk er instrumentell. In KulturSverige 2009 : Problemanalys och statistik (pp. 56-

. Swedish Cultural Policy Research Observatory. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18582

Wenzlaff, K. (2020a). Civic Crowdfunding: Four Perspectives on the Definition of Civic Crowdfunding. In R. Shneor,

L. Zhao & B.-T. Flåten (Eds.), Advances in Crowdfunding: Research and Practice (pp. 441-472). Springer International

Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-46309-0_19

Wenzlaff, K. (2020b). Where and how do public authorities and crowdfunding platforms collaborate? https://www.linkedin.

com/pulse/where-how-do-public-authorities-crowdfunding-karsten-wenzlaff

Descàrregues

Publicades

2023-12-18

Com citar

Rykkja, A. and Bonet Agustí, L. (2023) “Government Matching of Cultural Crowdfunding: An exploratory comparative analysis of the Spanish and Swedish cases”, Debats. Revista de cultura, poder i societat, 2023(8), pp. 249–273. Available at: https://revistadebats.net/article/view/6445 (Accessed: 23 February 2024).

Número

Secció

ARTÍCLES