Debats. Revista de cultura, poder i societat 2023-02-03T16:06:02+00:00 Joaquim Rius-Ulldemolins Open Journal Systems <p><span lang="ca-ES"><em>Debats. Revista de cultura, poder i societat</em></span><span lang="ca-ES">, fundada el 1982, és publicada per la Institució Alfons el Magnànim-Centre Valencià d'Estudis i de Recerca. Diputació de València amb la voluntat de promoure els debats contemporanis sobre les relacions entre la cultura, el poder i la societat des d'una perspectiva àmplia i multidisciplinària integrant la perspectiva de las ciències socials i els estudis culturals. Actualment, la revista&nbsp;<em>Debats</em>&nbsp;està indexada a Emerging Sources Citation Index i a Scopus.</span></p> Annual Review 7 2023-02-03T16:06:02+00:00 Debats Revista de cultura, política i societat <p>Special Issue “Culture and genders. Arts and professions”</p> <p>Special Issue “Culture and genders. Career paths, policies, and cultural management”</p> 2023-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Drets d'autor (c) 2023 Restructuring of the electoral competition in the Autonomous Community of Valencia (2011–2019) 2023-02-02T18:25:10+00:00 Joan Enguer Oscar Barberà <p>Electoral competition in the Valencian Autonomous Community has long been articulated through the left–right and national identity divides. Although voter identities have generally remained stable over time, some shifts between 2011 and 2019 indeed seemed to be connected to the breakthrough of new political parties. The aim of this article was to show the electoral spaces occupied by new and mainstream political parties in the Valencian region through the last three regional electoral cycles. This, in turn, allowed us to trace the evolution of the main political areas dominated by each party, as well as to highlight spaces in which the electoral competition was more demanding. This Valencian case study shows the limitations of theories of party competition based on exclusive control of the electoral space by some political parties.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Drets d'autor (c) 2023 Protest cycles in post-transitional Spain (2011–2017): a comparison between the Indignados Movement and the Catalan independence process 2023-02-02T18:45:58+00:00 Jordi Bonet-Martí M. Trinidad Bretones Esteban <p>This article aimed to determine how the structure of political opportunities in Spain has changed in connection to the cycles of protest associated with the 15-M anti-austerity movement and Catalan independence process between 2011 and 2017. To do this, we compared both episodes of conflict based on an analytical model developed through theories of the political process. In addition, we used evidence from the analysis of statistical records, barometers of public opinion, newspapers, and research carried out by other authors. This article discusses the similarities and differences between both episodes in relation to the different variables making up the structure of political opportunities. We end by identifying the impacts of both episodes on these structures as well as the state responses when trying to manage the challenges launched by them. Finally, the institutionalisation<br>dynamics followed by both movements were compared and we also examined their conclusions in two different outputs: transformation of the party system in the case of the Spanish 15-M movement and repression and imprisonment of the pro-independence leaders in the Catalan one. To conclude, it is made clear that the chances of social co-mobilisation success increase when political opportunities are broadened, when the existence of allies is proven, and when the opponents’ weakness are made evident. However, we also expound how, when faced with intensified protests, government forces and the state apparatus may respond with reform or repression, or with a complex combination of both.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Drets d'autor (c) 2023 Female labour and leadership in music Contexts, constraints, future(s) 2023-02-02T09:23:42+00:00 Iva Neni´c Tatjana Nikoli´c <p>Here we explore the contemporary practices of female participation in the music scenes in Serbia, and to an extent, in the Balkans. This research identified and described the possibilities, gendered constraints, and acts of transgressions that together weave a complex dynamic of female participation in popular music, in relation to the changing field of dominant gender ideologies in Serbia and the surrounding region. This work provides a critical analysis of gender issues in music-making and performing and of the topic of gendered labour in music, by relying on multiple case studies grounded in local contexts. We consider the mores and demands of the music market<br>and everyday culture, their link to personal experiences, and the reach of the social institutions regarding music. Either as role models or cherished leaders, female musicians employ different tactics to fight stereotypes, strengthen communities, and ensure female participation. This work maps the strategies and tools they have been putting in place in order to sustain their audience, income, and presence to the best possible extent. Bearing in mind the imperative of transforming a standard way of working, communicating with audiences, and maintaining earning potential, this text singles out practices that could be recognised as (female) leadership in contemporary circumstances. We also consider a wider spectrum of roles that female musicians and music professionals have taken on or were awarded within their professional circles, local scenes, communities, or wider society.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Drets d'autor (c) 2023 Shatter silence, raise hell, and run riot: music and gender in Spain, 2018–20211 2023-02-02T15:31:10+00:00 Angels Bronsoms Paula Guerra <p>Gender issues in relation to contemporary music and within the artistic scene are a research topic of growing interest. This study focuses on the strategies adopted by women to resist gender inequalities in the music industry in the light of both cultural policies that continue to discriminate against them as well as the conditions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. The data considered here were drawn from 40 radio interviews broadcast during the 2018–2019 season on the Radio Nacional de España, Radio 4; a second round of interviews was conducted in the spring of 2021 in the post-COVID-19 context, either by mail or phone. The interviews were organised into three analytical categories designed to provide details on subjects such as profession, prestige, and recognition of women’s musical creations or productions, and how their representation was portrayed by the media and/or public. The results provided some findings relevant to the opportunities and careers women could access. Although the arts and culture are often viewed as ‘women’s worlds,’ many sectors are permeated by cumulative disadvantages including gender stereotypes, difficulties in reconciling work and family life, objectification, and sexual harassment. The findings obtained in this current work are in line with these women’s own responses, such as the following “The more I fight, the more I feel alive!”, “What if women had the power?”, and “No more twenty feet from stardom.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Drets d'autor (c) 2023 Gender inequalities in the music industry in Spain: A mixed methodology study 2023-02-02T15:47:28+00:00 Miguel Ángel G. Escribano Dafne Muntanyola-Saura J. Ignacio Gallego <p>In today’s music industry, many female workers live experiences of injustice and inequality that, whether perceived or not, are caused by and simultaneously affect both the system of music production relationships and daily their lives. These experiences are already evident from the state of ignorance associated with the absence of databases and records of economic activities by disaggregated by sex in this industry. This article attempts to answer a question: how can we investigate the possible experiences of gender injustices and inequalities when there are no official records to shed light on the basic structures that order the relationships of production affecting daily life? This is even more true now that there is ample evidence of the historical inequality of women compared to men in most labour fields. Therefore, the mixed methodology we used here responds to the injustice and epistemic ignorance underlying the present structure of labour relations and family reconciliation. This approach allowed us to undertake an exploratory and descriptive analysis of the situation of women in the music industry from this initial premise. The aim of this work arose from the need to present and justify the use and procedures of a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodology as a necessary tool to research the situation of female workers in the music industry in Spain.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Drets d'autor (c) 2023 Incorporating an intersectional perspective into local community cultural facilities: identifying priority areas 2023-02-02T16:07:21+00:00 Jordi Baltà Gigi Guizzo Àngel Mestres <p>The integration of an intersectional perspective in the analysis and response to inequality and discrimination has become frequent in recent years because of the need to develop more complex approaches in these areas. This article aimed to present some initial reflections and approaches to the transfer of this perspective to the practice of local cultural facilities (e.g., community centres). To this end, we provide a definition of the intersectional perspective and its implications and apply it to the practice of local cultural management, including the identification of a range of conceptual and practical challenges. The work concludes by distinguishing a set of priority areas for the mainstreaming of intersectionality as part of the management of local cultural facilities: baseline analysis, training, consultation and participation spaces, programming, mediation, and evaluation and learning processes. Despite the complexity involved in implementing these tasks, we suggest that intersectionality should be understood as a progressive learning process that may take advantage of existing initiatives and knowledge in areas including cultural rights, gender, and diversity management.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Drets d'autor (c) 2023 Culture and gender perspectives in the city of Barcelona 2023-02-02T16:21:29+00:00 Anna Villarroya Marta Casals-Balaguer <p>In recent years, many countries and local governments have paid special attention to the circumstances and needs of women as creators and producers of diverse artistic expressions. The inclusion of gender equality in the political agenda has emerged, in many cities, at the hand of feminist movements and the activism of professionals in the cultural sector. This article aims to explore the role of Barcelona as a laboratory city for good practices in the field of culture and gender. After a previous diagnosis of gender inequalities in the field of arts and culture in the city of Barcelona, this original research used a qualitative methodology. This was based on a series of semi-structured interviews with leading professionals in the sector of culture and gender. We also analysed different cases of innovative experiences in the cultural field located in different neighbourhoods<br>of the city. The article concludes that, although the feminist movements and cultural sector of Barcelona have worked to put gender equality on the political-institutional agenda, there is still a long way to go in implementing programmatic activities able to transform our society.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Drets d'autor (c) 2023 Opposed devotions? Creation and care in the cultural precariat 2023-02-02T16:33:05+00:00 Juan Pecourt Sandra Obiol <p>In this article we will address the specific logic of cultural precariousness, focusing on gender factors that place working women in positions of structural weakness—a complex and multidimensional phenomenon. In our analysis, we focused on the relationship between creative labour and care work as differentiated social spaces. We understand ‘care work’ as the management of people’s well-being, essential for the sustainability of life and the reproduction of the workforce. On the other hand, ‘creative labour’ is the most visible dimension of artistic activity and implies the production of works that achieve a social value and are recognised as artistic. The latter includes, especially as a result of the recent precariousness processes at play, an important component of ‘free labour,’ individual background work aimed at providing adequate conditions for creation and which nowadays focuses on the construction and maintenance of social networks and e-reputation. In short, while creative labour constitutes the visible and socially recognised part of artistic practice, free labour and care work form the hidden part. Although these aspects do not receive social recognition, they largely determine individual achievements, beyond the romantic conceptions of the ‘genius artist’ strictly focused on the creative sphere. In our article we reflect on the relationship between both these types of work, construction of their constitutive logics—which are generally incompatible with each other—and identify their main contradictions.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Drets d'autor (c) 2023 Gender disparities in the performing arts labour market 2023-02-01T15:20:49+00:00 Tino Carreño Anna Villarroya <p>This article aims to analyse gender inequalities in the performing arts sector in Spain, and more specifically,<br>the disparities evident in relation to remuneration. Based on a sample of 800 professionals, our results revealed<br>that the employment situation in Spain is worse for women, who continued to be paid less than their male<br>counterparts. This held true even when women performed the same duties, had a higher level of training, held<br>the same positions, or had been working in the sector for the same number of years as men. An understanding<br>of these inequalities, and especially of their multidimensional character, could help both government agencies<br>and private sector organisations to develop and implement measures that promote gender equality, which now<br>forms the basis for cultural diversity in the performing arts.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Drets d'autor (c) 2023 Young actresses at work: an analysis of gender and power inequalities in the Italian theatrical sector 2023-02-01T16:06:08+00:00 Emanuela Naclerio <p>From the time the ban on women performing in theatrical plays was lifted in mid-1600s England to the communicative impact of the ongoing #MeToo campaign, the presence of actresses on stage has always had<br>the capacity to profoundly question and significantly reduce societal norms related to gender and cultural spaces. Using a qualitative methodology, this paper analyses young actresses’ experiences of work in the Italian performing arts sector, considering aesthetic and emotional aspects related to theatre work. The occupational environment, described through the sector’s specific datasets and surveys, appears to be characterised by marked power asymmetries in terms of age and gender which, in turn, is embedded in young actresses’ everyday bodily and emotional experiences of work.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Drets d'autor (c) 2023 The place of women in the theatres of São Paulo: from writing to performing 2023-02-01T17:53:21+00:00 João Oswaldo Leiva Filho <p>The aim of this article was to provide quantitative information about the gender gap in theatre production in the city of São Paulo (Brazil), thereby helping to raise awareness of the inequalities faced by women in the field. The text compares the opportunities available to men and women working in seven different theatre-related occupations and is underpinned by a mapping of 1,466 plays performed in the city throughout 2018. The data were collected from three weekly guides published by the local media and two monthly publications: a theatre guide and a magazine from a cultural institution that ran 20 cultural venues in the city. Any gaps were then filled by directly contacting theatre venues and the producers of the plays. There was a significant imbalance towards men in the two most strategic theatre production jobs: men wrote 77% of the plays and directed 78% of them. Thus, male professionals were a huge majority precisely in the functions responsible for building the discourse that reaches audiences. Compared to women, this left them in a much better position to express their values, ideas, and perspectives. This gap was smaller when considering performers, of which 46% were female. Women were also largely absent in technical occupations given that they were a minority among lighting directors and set designers. However, women represented the majority among costume designers. The most unexpected result was the parity among producers, with 52% being women. All the aforementioned gaps increased when the number of performances were considered. On average, women worked less in plays that provided more working time that were therefore, more likely to have higher salaries. This current study also showed that when women were responsible for writing, directing, or producing a play, the gender gap was reduced in all the other functions.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Drets d'autor (c) 2023 The gender paradox: professionalisation of a form of traditional martial arts, Lathi Khela, in the sociocultural context of Bangladesh 2023-02-01T18:01:37+00:00 Sumedha Bhattacharyya <p>In the midst of a COVID-19 pandemic-struck India, this paper was born as an autoethnographic and analytical inquiry; it presents qualitative and multimodal research into a martial arts dance tradition, Lathi Khela, conducted from 2017 to 2018. This practice developed as a martial art, with little or no patronage, during the colonial days of the still undivided Bengal. Indeed, it still lives on as a popular martial arts dance tradition in many districts and rural communities of Bangladesh. Compared to other districts, the Lathi Khela group from Narail has continued this practice through innovative methods. The distinctive character of the district is governed by the multi-generational practitioners of Lathi Khela and their creative choreographies, as well as the knowledge it articulates and embodies. Moreover, in Narail, this previously male-dominated profession has also included women since 2008. The focus of this work was the role of gender in the continuity of the Lathi Khela tradition in this district. This was achieved<br>through five semi-structured, demonstrative interviews intuitively applied in the field. The research also drew on an ongoing conversation on Facebook with M. Rahat, an experienced Lathi Khela practitioner, who took stock of the current cultural landscape of the practice in the context of COVID-19. On the one hand, the women of this district occupy a contested space when representing this male-dominated tradition, and on the other, they physically embody lives within the patrilineal boundaries of kinship and marriage. The performativity of gender is thus, directly connected to the symbolic meaning of maan, that is, the prestige attributed to the female body within the sociocultural contexts of the Lathi Khela</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Drets d'autor (c) 2023 Macha Caporal: bridging gaps, embodying resistance 2023-02-01T18:17:17+00:00 Pamela Santana Oliveros <p>The following article explores the practice and performance of a group (or ‘block’) of Macha Caporal dancers. These women appropriate the costumes, movements, and name of the male character (Macho Caporal) in the Bolivian Caporales dance. Given the demarcated gender structure established in Caporales—represented by the Macho Caporal and Cholita (female character) couple—the appearance of the new role of the Macha Caporal in the dance has led to social questioning about the performances and identities of women who dance as Machas Caporales. Based on ethnographic research undertaken from a gender perspective in 2018 in the city of La Paz (Bolivia), this current article analyses how the performance of Macha Caporal dancers reveals these women’s non-conformity with the discriminatory gender norms present in their wider social contexts. Through the accounts<br>of these women and their descriptions of the circumstances in which they practice and perform the Caporales, we revealed the conditions in which they dance. This made visible the dynamics of inequality and violence present in the environment of the folkloric entradas (dance parades) in the city of La Paz. Finally, this study examined how the organisation of women into independent blocks and their style of movement could be understood as acts of resistance and political action in a setting characterised by chauvinism and inequality.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Drets d'autor (c) 2023 Dancing in the street as feminist empowerment: the choreographic discourse of the BellyWarda and L’Armée des Roses collectives 2023-02-01T18:26:37+00:00 Maria Patricio-Mulero <p>The reaffirmation of female bodies in public spaces is a constant in feminist social movements. Indeed, the role of the female body in public spaces and conveying a social message is vindicated by artists from all disciplines, whether by occupying the streets in protest of unequal women’s rights and equality or sexual harassment and rape, or in other social demonstrations. In the field of dance, some companies perform expressly in public spaces with the precise aim of conquering these arenas as a stage to make female bodies visible, highlighting their diversity and demanding more equality and freedom. In this article, we use collective interviews with two French companies committed to promoting feminism in the streets BellyWarda (FatChanceBellyDance©) and L’Armée des Roses (performing the cancan), to analyse the choreographic discourse related to this concept. The study examined the appropriation of public spaces, interactions with the public at large and their reception of these performances, social links between dancers, and the transmission of feminist values. Observation of these dances and the interview outcomes was addressed from the perspectives of the sociology of emotions, phenomenology of urban spaces, and women’s studies. The context of the COVID-19 pandemic prevented an analysis of the public<br>reception of these street actions, but the ongoing situation in France in which dance was considered a ‘nonessential cultural asset’ during the second lockdown (when this research took place), was discussed.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Drets d'autor (c) 2023